landscape of code


Landscape of Code

Programmers are like linguists, studying foreign languages and reaching varying degrees of fluency. Let’s traverse the coding landscape to learn more about some of the most popular programming languages used today.


When it was created: 1983

Who created it: Microsoft

What it is: Used to create computer software, including games, office applications, graphics and operating systems

Skill level: Expert

Prerequisites: C

Why you should learn it: To create games and software for mobile and desktop

Applications and examples: Blackberry OS, Microsoft Office Suite

Companies that use this: Google, Mozilla, Firefox, Winamp, Adobe Software, Amazon, Lockheed Martin

Job titles: Software developers, embedded engineers, programmer analysts

iOS Swift

When it was created: 2014

Who created it: Apple

What it is: Used mainly for expanding apps on Apple’s iOS and OSX

Skill level: Advanced

Prerequisites: iOS and OSX knowledge

Why you should learn it: For developers who want to build apps for iOS market

Applications and examples: Wall Street Journal app, Getty Image’s Stream,

Companies that use this: Apple, Getty Images, Slack, Dow Jones, Playlist Media

Job titles: Software developers, data engineers, iOS mobile app developers, senior programmers


When it was created: 2000

Who created it: Microsoft

What it is: Used for Microsoft and Android operating systems

Skill level: Advanced

Prerequisites: C, Windows knowledge

Why you should learn it: Writing programs for big companies or for fast software in large projects

Applications and examples: Windows-based platforms, Android apps, Adobe Creative Suite, Eclipse, Lotus Notes, Minecraft, OpenOffice

Companies that use this: Microsoft Intel, Hewlett Packard, V2COM, Eclipse Information Technologies, eBay, Eurotech

Job titles: Web developers, automation test engineers, software engineers

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Ruby on Rails

When it was created: 1995

Who created it: Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto (4)

What it is: Open-sourced, object-oriented, typically used for simulations, 3D modeling and tracking information on websites

Skill level: Intermediate

Prerequisites: C languages

Why you should learn it: Necessary for creating and managing data-tracking programs or sites

Applications and examples: Basecamp, Amazon, Twitter, Groupon

Companies that use this: Github, Scribd, Groupon, NASA Langley Research Center, Blue Sequence (part of Toyota Motor Manufacturing), Motorola, Google (SketchUp)

Job titles: Web developers, system administrators, robotics specialists, app developers, security specialists, data science engineers


When it was created: Developed in the late 1980s, released in 1991

Who created it: CWI in the Netherlands

What it is: “Glue” language to integrate systems and for Rapid Application Development (RAD)

Skill level: Intermediate

Prerequisites: None, Python is all-in-one language

Why you should learn it: Needed for many development aspects, including frameworks, micro-frameworks and advanced content management systems

Applications and examples: “Civilization 4” uses AI that implements Python; NASA uses Python in its Integrated Planning System

Companies that use this: Google, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, DropBox, NASA, ESRI

Job titles: Web developers, game developers, back-end developers, software engineers


When it was created: 1995

Who created it: Netscape

What it is: Used to add dynamic elements to web pages, like scrolling, showing time and date and creating games

Skill level: Beginner

Prerequisites: HTML

Why you should learn it: To create site interactivity and more user-friendly interfaces

Applications and examples: Tweetmap, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)

Companies that use this: WordPress, Soundcloud, Linkedin, Groupon, Yahoo, Tweetmap

Job titles: Web developers, software engineers


When it was created: 1990

Who created it: Tim Berners-Lee

What it is: HTML isn’t a programing language per se, but a basic markup language used to create web pages, display documents online and in email

Skill level: Beginner

Prerequisites: None

Why you should learn it: Provides base of structure and appearance of all websites today

Applications and examples: Any website

Companies that use this: Pretty much any company with a website

Job titles: Web developers, web designers, engineers, online marketer



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